“Failure Analysis of 2 Liter 4 Cylinder Engine Turbochargers,”
Edgar J. Gunter, 2019.
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From the Introduction

The application of turbochargers is well over 100 years in use and in development. For example, very few diesel engines operate today that are not turbocharged. The advantage of the turbocharger is that by using the exhaust engine gas to drive a turbine, a connected compressor can be used to increase the air pressure and intake volume into the engine. Increasing the amount of air into an engine allows for more fuel to be added and hence generates more horsepower with a smaller engine with increased fuel efficiency.

There is now an extensive trend in the auto industry to move to the smaller 4 cylinder engines that are turbocharged. For example, the popular 3 liter six cylinder engines in many models have often been replaced by a 2 L turbocharged four-cylinder engine. There are currently over 95 models offered on the market that have a turbocharged four-cylinder engine. However the problems with these engines are of such significance that it has even come to the attention of Consumer Reports. Reliability problems and performance response have been mentioned in a number of their articles.


  1. Background and Introduction
  2. Review of 2 Liter Engine Turbocharger Failed Components
  3. Analysis of a 2 Liter 4 Cylinder Engine Turbocharger Dynamics
  4. Dynamic Behavior of Turbochargers in Floating Ring Bearings
    and How They Fail
  5. Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
  6. Improving the Life Expectancy of the 2 L Four-Cylinder Engine Turbochargers